Linux

Installation of Linux

Installation of Linux become very confusing for new user. When a user want to install a Linux in system, he does not know the exact method, many books provide instructions for installing the Linux, These books provide lot of details often confusing for new user, what method should they follow. There are many method to install the Linux in system and installation also depend upon the purpose of installation like learning purpose advance users, for servers. This web-page provide installation's instruction for beginners, When you will acquainted with Linux, you would know different-different methods. Before starting of installation user must know their system configuration, like RAM size, hard disk free space (free space means unallocated space not like windows drive which is free).

Starting the installation process of Linux :

To start the installation process, we must boot the target system using Red Hat Linux Installation Kernel. In order to boot the system, we must provide the proper boot medium (e.g. boot floppy disk). We must also configure the target system's to boot from the medium. Often, the BIOS is set to boot the system from its internal hard drive and must be reconfigured to boot from a floppy or CD-ROM (DVD ROM).
There are different-different flavours of Linux, For Linux learning purpose, i am taking Redhat version 5 and 6.

Installation mode

When the system boots, it display the Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0! . This screen offers the installation mode : Install or upgrade an existing system, Install system with basic video driver, Rescue installed system, Boot from local drive. Select Install or upgrade an existing system, Press <Enter> key as shown in figure below.
INSTALLATION of Linux
Installation of Linux

Immediately you would see the process of Initializing the cpu ,memory, devices ,etc. as shown in figure below.
INSTALLATION of Linux
CPU, Memory during booting

If you want to check your media(DVD) press "OK" , if you are sure your media is fine then press "skip".
INSTALLATION of Linux
Media Checking

Click Next at the next screen.
INSTALLATION of Linux

Select the language you want to use to perform the installation in this screen (see illustration). The interface works much like any other Windows-style interface. Simply point to your selection and click. English (English) is selected on our sample system. When you are ready, click the Next button in the lower-right portion of the screen.
INSTALLATION of Linux
Select Language

Select your keyboard layout type. This screen allows you to select the layout type for the keyboard. The screen lists the various possible layouts that are supported. The U.S. English layout is selected on our sample system. Click Next to continue.
INSTALLATION of Linux
Select keyboard

What kind or device will your installation involve. Here you will see two options. If you are going for normal installation of regular hard-drive choose the Basic Storage Devices.
INSTALLATION of Linux

Initializing the Hard Disk. If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive. The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same answer to all devices.
INSTALLATION of Linux

In next step name this computer in order to uniquely identify the computer on network The name defaults to localhost.localdomain, which can easily be changed later.
INSTALLATION of Linux

In next step name this computer in order to uniquely identify the computer on network The name defaults to localhost.localdomain, which can easily be changed later.
Linux hostname
Defining Hostname

Time Zone Configuration

Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. There are two ways for you to select your time zone:
Click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection. You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Linux time
Setting Time

The next part of the installation allows you to set a password for the root user, also called the superuser. It is the most privileged account on the system and typically has full control of the system. It is equivalent to the Administrator account in Windows operating systems.
Linux root password
Setting root password

Automatic Partitioning

Automatic partitioning allows you to create partitioning automatic helpful for new users.

Manually Partitioning

In Manual partition you have to chose the portion size as well the where to install OS.
Linux manual partition
Select Create Custom layout

After selecting "Create Custom layout"
Linux manual partition
Select Create Custom layout

Click on the box below than /dev/sda
Then the next screen would be
Partition Fields
i suggested you to create the following partitions: A /boot/ partition (200 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during the bootstrap process. creating a small partition to hold these files is a good idea. For most users, a 200 MB boot partition is sufficient.
Linux boot partition
Linux boot partition

A swap partition
swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. A rough idea is that swap partition should be twice the size of RAM Concept of Virtual Memory From book "Red Hat Linux Networking and System Administration" By Terry Collings, Kurt Wal
Most advanced operating systems support the concept of virtual memory, in which part of your system's hard disk functions as an extension of the physical memory (RAM). When the operating system runs out of physical memory, it can move (or swap out) the contents of currently unneeded parts of RAM to make room for a program that needs more memory. When the operating system needs to access anything in the swapped-out data, it has to find something else to swap out and then it swaps in the required data from disk. This process of swapping data back and forth between the RAM and the disk is also known as paging. Because the disk is much slower than RAM, the system's performance is slower when the operating system has to perform a lot of paging. However, virtual memory enables you to run programs that you otherwise can't run.
Linux swap partition
Linux swap partition

A root partition This is where "/" (the root directory) is located. Root partition should be at least 5 GB for (graphical installation). Actual size of root partition depend upon the packages installed.
Linux swap partition
Linux swap partition

Basic setting is done. You can also create the /home, /tmp and others partition. If don’t create the /home ,/tmp etc. then it would take the space of / partition, the significance of these directories will be discussed later. Click the write changes to disk. It would create the partition as you fixed.
Linux swap partition
Linux write changes

Package Group Selection Now you can select the packages you want to install.
Linux package selection
Linux package selection

At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Linux package installation
Linux package installation

License Information Select the agree, press forward.
Linux license Information
Linux license Information

Set up software update
If you are simple user I would prefer select No.
Linux software update
Linux software update

Create a normal user (What is normal user and super user will be discussed later)
Linux nornal user
Creating normal user

Set the date and time of Linux.
Linux time setting
Linux time setting

After Clicking forward Linux would be ready. All type of Linux almost follow same steps.





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